Big Bang to Biology

In the beginning of time there was 0...

In the beginning there was a void, nothing, there was zero Copyright 2018

And Then There was 1…

And then 0 and 1 started linking organizing

…. sometimes in the presence of a facilitator and the two equations (1+1=2, and 1+1= 1 were born)

 

The poem was written following a discussion between 3 school friends Ashley Davidoff , Nadine Abelson and Lindsay Leveen inspired by the concept of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts.

In the Beginning

There was 0

Then there was 1

Then 0+1 = 1

1 to the power 0 = 1

1 to the power 1 = 1

1 to any power = 1

Any number to the power 0 = 1

Though 0 to the power 0 is indeterminate

And finally 1 + 1 = 1

 

Big Bang and the Formation of the Hydrogen Atom ... and the beginning of the build up

In the beginning – about 13.7 billion years ago after a big bang, the universe was so hot and then as it began to cool protons neutrons and electrons were born and then the simplest atom – the hydrogen atom was born first, and remains the most abundant atom in the universe contributing to 90% of the atoms in the universe. After about 300 million years the hydrogen atoms started to clump together under the force of gravity generating pressure as they clumped and then heat resulting in nuclear fusion. As a result of nuclear fusion of two hydrogen atoms helium , then lithium was formed and then the rest of the elements up to iron (26 hydrogen atoms) were formed (http://www.physicscentral.com/explore/poster-stardust.cfm) Therefore matter formed creating the stars and then galaxies in the heavens and the table of elements on the earth up to iron. After iron nuclear fusion requires more energy than it produces. The inner core of the earth has a large amount of iron. 

Big Bang - In the beginning - about 13.7 billion years ago there was a big bang and the universe was formed. It was very hot but when it started to cool, electrons, protons, and neutrons were born. Copyright 2018

The Birth of the Forces of the Universe and the Beginning of Biology

The Birth of Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons When the universe started to cool the electrons, protons and neutrons were born. Copyright 2018

There were two basic forces in nature … positive and negative, and a neutral force, called the neutron.

In the atomic world .the positive is encapsulated in the proton and the negative in the electron while the neutron resides with the proton in the nucleus.

The Primal Electromagnetic Forces Positive and Negative The primal opposites, attracted each other' like nothing else, forming an unavoidable union, while retaining their individuality and going for the most part their separate ways, but remaining bonded. The first and most abundant union and the building block of all to follow is the hydrogen atom consisting of one electron and one proton. Copyright 2018

When  positive and negative interact – it is not a simple interaction.  It is not a 1+1 =2 , and is closer to 1+1=1.   It is like marriage.  Firstly by their union they still retain their individuality, go their separate ways with the electron in orbit and the nucleus staying central, but remain bonded and together they form a new unit.

Evolving Units

When a new unit is formed from its component parts, an interaction  has taken place in a given space, in a given moment in time, in a given environment. The new unit has unique characteristics that is not manifest in either of the component parts.

At the time of big bang the electron, proton, and neutron were formed.  

Formation of the Hydrogen Atom After the big bang one of the first interactions between the electrons and protons was in the formation of the hydrogen atom An electron (unit 1) interacted with a proton (unit 2) in the heated environment in the space of the universe, at a moment in time, and a new and unique unit 3, called the hydrogen atom was formed. because the interaction resulted in a spinning charge an electromagnetic field was set up and the atom also spun in space in a unique way that was not characteristic of either the proton or the electron. Copyright 2018

The hydrogen atom is the building block of all else to come.

The Hydrogen Atom Spinning Precessing Magnetic Field Mass, Motion, Space, Time and Electromagnetic Force The spinning hydrogen atom introduces us to the elements of mass, motion, space, time, and electromagnetic forces. Copyright 2018

Some Universal Principles

The marriage between the electron and the proton is not a simple one.  It is not as black and white as it seems since as a result of the marriage the electron is bound to the nucleus and the proton is bound to the electron.  The motion of the electron in an orbit allows it to keep its distance from the proton and prevents the two from crashing and falling head over heels into each other, or nulling each other.   The hydrogen atom is set in motion and as a result of the electrical force in motion an electromagnetic field is set up.  The spinning of the hydrogen atom forces the atom to be in a certain position in space at a given time as it moves – Voila – the elements of spacetime and motion, are manifest in the units.  The units have mass and elements of electromagnetic and mechanical forces.  The  interactions, allow bonding, and new units are established.  Uniqueness, dependence and independence of each of the units follows.  These are elemental and foundational principles common to all matter- organic and inorganic, biological or otherwise and will be repeated ad nauseum in the following texts.

With the birth of the universe, an infinitesimal number of hydrogen atoms were born and let loose to build bigger and better units with their new found expression through mass, time, space, electromagnetic force, and motion.

The Birth of the Proton from the Womb of the Hot Hot Hot Universe Hydrogen, as simplest and lightest atom, remains the most abundant atom in the universe, and contributes to 90% of all the atoms of the universe. Copyright 2018

The electromagnetic forces and the fact that the hydrogen atoms are moving, forced the atoms to come into contact with other hydrogen atoms and random reactions took place in the presence of the given environment in which temperature, mass, motion, space, time, electromagnetic forces, and facilitators were relevant to the reaction and the result was the creation of other atoms and elements. (Bader)

The Building of New atoms and Elements

Doubling Up the Forces - Helium When two hydrogen atoms combined in a given environment, at a moment in time and space, helium the second lightest and second most abundant element in the universe is produced. Copyright 2018

And as we double the units of force we find that there is a relatively weak electric force and another force called a strong force

Fission and Fusion – Strong forces and Electrical forces – 

And as we build up the negative and positive charges and we add neutrons in the mix the units get linked and organized in different ways to create new units with completely different characteristics

As we add units things start to change to a point where electrical forces start to dominate

The Atom - The Powerful and Indivisible. This atom has 56 electrons in 6 orbits It is called barium. In this diagram of barium we note the electrons spinning around the nucleus. Barium has 56 electrons, 56 protons and 81 neutrons giving it an atomic weight of 56+81 = 137. The electrons atre distributed in the orbits in the following manner 2,8,18,18,8,2. Copyright 2018

The remarkable similarity between the structure of the atom, and the structure of the solar system, leads one to ponder the recurring organizational pattern of things in between. If one considers the atom as a unit and the solar system as a unit then the technique of combining units to build bigger units more powerful than the individual parts allows us to understand in some measure the unifying units to units concept or 1+1= 1

Atoms are the smallest parts of matter that possess the distinctive chemical characteristics of chemicals that we can recognize in our surroundings

If for example split a piece of charcoal, which consists of pure carbon, and break it up into its component parts, it will end up as an atom of carbon that will have the same chemical characteristics as the original charcoal If you were to do the same thing of chopping up an iron molecule till it ends up with characteristic component parts, you would end up with iron atoms that behave in similar fashion as the original iron bar If the chopping continues then the iron particles will be broken up into protons, neutrons and electrons.

If on the other hand we took water and started breaking it up into its component parts then we would arrive at the molecules of water wth 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Individually these would not behave like the water molecule but rather like hydrogen and oxygen individually. Then as they get broken up further into electrons protons and neutrons, they will not behave like oxygen or hydrogen but like protons electrons and neutrons.

When a substance consists of a single type of atom it is called an element. There are 92 different elements found naturally on the earth .

A substance that is made up of more than one atom is called a compound.

And atoms of same type link and organize and they form an element

The elements are categorized into the groups of alkali, metals, alkali earths, halogens, noble gases.

The Elements The Elements Now up to 118 of them Periodic Table in the Round 108485pb20.8s Copyright 2018

The atoms also link to different atoms to form molecules

Two Hydrogens and One Oxygen Water Molecule The Molecule Two Hydrogens and an Oxygen Water Davidoff art Copyright 2018

So What About Biology?

The Units of Biology and Fundamentals of life:

Atomic particles —>molecules—> macromolecules (DNA, RNA)—> self assembling macromolecules—> lipid bilayer formation—> lipid bilayer encapsulating self assembling macromolecules—>compartmentalization—> evolution of those compartments with respect to environment—> replicating cells—>formation of basic bacteria in hot springs—> formation of eukaryotes—> evolution of the cells to organize into tissues—> into organs—>then into living creatures (Wiki Books)

Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen. The Most Common Building Blocks of Biological Materials Copyright 2018

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (hydrates of carbon) are organic compounds that usually contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen in the ratios: 1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogens: 1 Oxygen.

Carbohydrates C:2H:O Carbohydrates Carbohydrates (hydrates of carbon) are organic compounds that usually contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen in the ratios: 1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogens: 1 Oxygen. Copyright 2018

Monosaccharides and disacharrides are two types of carbohydrates

A monosacharride such as glucose is linking and organization to create something bigger and more powerful than the individual parts

Molecules molecules and then macromolecules

Carbohydrate Monosaccharride Glucose Carbohydrate monosaccharide glucose Copyright 2018

Lipids

Lipids triglycerides eg fat and oils

Sterols – Choletserol Vit D and Sex hormones

Phospholipids eg lecithin

Three fatty acids and a glycerol

All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol. They, like the carbohydrates are created from a combination of carbon hydrogen and oxygen which link and organize to form a fat soluble compound. The triglycerides consist of one unit of glycerol and three units of fatty acids

The fatty acid is a usually a long chain of even number of carbons (usually between 4 to 28 each carbon allowing for 4 bonds. When there are fewer than 6 carbons it is called a short chain fatty acid. When there are 6-12 carbons it is called a medium chain and when there more than 12 carbons it is called a long chain fatty acids.

o.

Fats A Combination of C H and O Fats A Combination of C H and O Copyright 2018
Fatty Acid The unique linking and organization of the carbons hydrogens and oxygen creates unique products or metabolites, This linking is not indiscriminate. There are rules that the units have to abide by in order that organization can take place. An obvious rule in this instance is that the carbon can only mintain 4 bonds A double bond takes up two of the availablke 4 . Since each of the bonded carbons use up 2 bonds with the double bond, and are connected to another carbon on each side and threfore they only have room for one hydrogen each. Copyright 2018

When the carbons are linked to each other by single bonds then ther are two hydrogens per carbon and the fatty acid is said to be saturated with hydrogen atoms. When there is a double bond between two carbons then each carbon in the double bond only has room for 1 hydrogen each and the fatty acid is unsaturated with hydrogen atoms 

Enter another molecule called glycerol – a type of alcohol with a hydroxyl group on each of its three carbons

Glycerol The OH groups - hydroxy functional groups place glcerol into the alcohol groups of chemicals "ol" denotes its alcohol nature diagram http://www.green-planet-solar-energy.com/what-is-glycerin.html Copyright 2018

When glycerol links and organizes with with 3 fatty acids a new product is born called triglyceride

Triglycerides The bond or link of the OH groups on the glycerol side links with the carboxyl group (carboxylic acid) OH + COOH Copyright 2012 

Proteins

Proteins are polymers constructed from a series of 20 different amino acids. This is the linking part.

An amino acid is composed of an amine linked to an acid

Amine NH3 proteins Alpha Carbon - The Link - Copyright 2018

The organizing part is the a specific sequence specified by the gene resulting in the primary structure.

As a result of the specific linking and organizing a secondary structure results which is a specific coiling of the structure in a unique 3D manner There are two basic types of secondary structure The alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet based on the hydrogen bonds that occur at regular intervals

The tertiary structure is a result of linking of side chains of various amino acids

When other proteins join a quartenary structure results

Amines N HH

Amino acids carbon

Amino Acid - building block of protein Alpha carbon the connector with the "R" representing something else eg hydrogen or CH3 big bang to biology Copyright 2018
The 20 amino acids Copyright 2018

The 20 amino acids form polypeptides and polypeptides form proteins

The Protein with Specific Shape The Units Link The physical shape of the proteins is their most unique characteristics aspect that allows functional specificity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lijQ3a8yUYQ Copyright 2018

Making Biological Materials from Proteins

Primary Structure

Alpha helix and Beta pleated sheet protein alpha helix and beta pleated sheet protein Copyright 2018

Hydrogen bonds between the amino acids determine whether the secondary proteins participate in almost every aspect of the cell structure and function

3D protein Shapes in 2D protein big bang to biology Copyright 2018

Cross bonds formed

Conglomerate 3D shapes

Hemoglobin Copyright 2018

Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are  small biomolecules, essential to all forms of life. They consist of  nucleotides.  A nucleotide is a monomer composed of:  5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.

Phosphate, Sugar and a Base = Nucleotide Copyright 2018

The sugar may be a ribose or a deoxyribose

nucleic acid, sugar, base, phosphate, The Common Vein, Ashley Davidoff MD
DNA - Sugar is Dexyribose DNA A base is a a substance that can accept hydrogen ions (protons) or more generally, donate electron pairs. The base in the nucleotide is a nitrogen containing base = nitrogenous base Copyright 2018

A base is a a substance that can accept hydrogen ions (protons) or more generally, donate electron pairs.

The base in the nucleotide is a nitrogen containing base = nitrogenous base

DNA

3 parts Phosphate group sugar (deoxyribose)and one of four bases adenine guanine cytosine thymine

sugar phosphate = hand rails together thy form a nucleotide

Bonnding of Two BAses Thymine and Cytosine the bases will bond via hydrogen bonds adenine only to thymine and cytosine only to guanine Copyright 2018

Alternate  amines

DNA sugar base protein cytosine guanine DNA sugar base protein cytosine guanine Copyright 2018

Infrastructure of the Double Spiral

chromosomes genes double spiral DNA sugar base protein cytosine guanine adenine thymine Copyright 2018

The basic pairs never change the order of the pairs varies from one species to the next

Double Helix chromosome genes double helix DNA sugar base protein cytosine guanine adenine thymine Copyright 2018

RNA

Made of nucleotides

Ribose as a pentose sugar

Uses Uracil and not Thymine

phosphate

RNA Ribose is the Sugar RNA Sugar ribose base protein cytosine guanine adenine uracil Copyright 2018

Purine derivatives 

RNA Sugar ribose base protein cytosine guanine adenine uracil Copyright 2018

DNA and RNA

DNA double helix uncoil transfer encryption messenger messenger RNA transcription RNA sugar ribose base protein cytosine guanine adenine tymine uracil a)= DNA in spiral b) uncoling c) separating d) RNA match up e) RNA encoded f) base pairs in DNA and RNA Copyright 2018

References

Davidoff A Birth of the Nucleus Blog

Carbohydrates Fats and Proteins – Wikipedia

FATS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36tlBLwJUxQ

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84MvQ9appxQ triglcerides

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCfMH2MT-Is phospholipids

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mpJYcFv9MWk&feature=related

95% of the lipids that we eat and 99% of the lipids in our body are triglycerides